Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) Definition and Symptoms
Research from Panjabi & White, Clinical Biomechanics Of The Spine, page 154, and the Law Of Conservation Of Linear Momentum, reveals an 8.2 mile per hour rear end collision which does not produce physical property damage, will produce 5 Gravitational units of force to the head and neck of vehicle occupants, enough to cause a 50% probability of Cerebral Contusion. Causation for concussion types is much higher.
Defined as the result of the forceful motion of the head or impact causing a brief change in mental status, a traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be classified as mild if there is no loss of consciousness or if a loss of consciousness and/or confusion, disorientation or a loss of memory is shorter than 30 minutes.
Post injury symptoms are often referred to as post concussive syndrome.
While MRI and CAT scans are often normal, the individual with a traumatic brain injury can have cognitive problems such as headache, difficulty thinking, memory problems, attention deficits, mood swings and frustration. These injuries are commonly overlooked. Even though this type of TBI is called “mild”, the effect on the family and the injured person can be devastating.
Mild Traumatic Brain Injury is the most prevalent TBI and Often missed at time of initial injury. Zeusclaim contains the Post Traumatic Concussion Questionnaire which asks 38 questions about the presence of concussion symptoms and detects the presence of MTBI ad the category of concussion type.
15% of people with mild TBI have symptoms that last one year or more.
Other Names For Mild TBI
- Minor head trauma
- Minor TBI
- Minor brain injury
- Minor head injury
Common Symptoms of Mild TBI
- Visual disturbances
- Memory loss
- Poor attention/concentration
- Sleep disturbances
- Dizziness/loss of balance
- Irritability-emotional disturbances
- Feelings of depression
- Other Symptoms Associated with Mild TBI
- Loss of smell
- Sensitivity to light and sounds
- Mood changes
- Getting lost or confused
- Slowness in thinking
These symptoms may not be present or noticed at the time of injury. They may be delayed days for weeks before they appear. The symptoms are often subtle and are often missed by the injured person, family and doctors which is why we incorporated the Post Traumatic Questionnaire into Zeusclaim.
The person looks normal and often moves normal in spite of not feeling or thinking normal. This makes the diagnosis easy to miss. Family and friends often notice changes in behavior before the injured person realizes there is a problem. Frustration at work or when performing household tasks may bring the person to seek medical care.
- MTBI’s can be further classified into Concussion Types
- A chiropractic license scope allows for diagnoses of cerebral contusion or concussion but if the symptoms include those of concussion, exhibit multiple categories of concussion types, involve more than headaches, require medication, are serious or persist for more than ten days, the chiropractor should refer the patient to a neurologist for a neurological work-up.
- Most concussions from low speed impacts occur immediately and can last from seconds to minutes but they can also last days and produce symptoms as described in the complaints section of Zeusclaim as indicated. When they persist, you should refer for further neuro workup. Review the concussion section in the complaints section to see concussion and cerebral contusion symptom differentiators. You will see concussion vs. cerebral contusion is determined by how the patient answers the post-concussion questionnaire which is built into the complaints section. Symptoms have been grouped in sections to indicate the different concussion types. Research reveals that an 8.2 mile per hour rear end collision can produce a cerebral contusion in 50% of the cases. The incidence of concussion is much higher. Continue looking at the concussion symptoms and you will see the differentiators for three types of concussions as:
- Three Categories Of Concussion Can Be Further Classified
- a). Physical Concussion
- b). Cognitive, somatic or psychological Concussion
- c). Behavioral and emotional Concussion
- The Computer Aided Decision making component will make a medical decision to select the different type of concussion among the 13 descriptive qualifiers in Section III Diagnoses that can be selected when diagnosing a cerebral contusion or one of the concussion types. Please peruse them and select those that are applicable and appropriate or click the Computer Aided Decision Making function icon and the Computer Aided Decision making component (DSS) Decision Support System will make the appropriate selections as applicable.
- You will also notice that:
- A cerebral contusion and concussion can occur simultaneously.
- “Closed Head Injury” is also often additionally diagnosed along with cerebral contusion and concussion.
- Concussion is immediate and transient
Section 1 - Definition